Windhund Arena

Review of: Windhund Arena

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war in Doorn an das Vorstellungsbild der Hohenzollerngruft noch immer fixiert. Wer Book of Ra online spielen will, spiele nie mit hohen EinsГtzen.

Windhund Arena

Sportplatz an der Windhund Arena - Hünstetten-Limbach. Anschrift. Sportplatz an der Windhund Arena Am Hümes Hünstetten-Limbach. Windhund-Arena Schweiz AG in Gossau SG - Handelsregister, Bonitätsprüfung, Management, Kennzahlen, Kontakt und News. Webseite Windhund Arena Hünstetten. KUNDE Windhund-Rennverein Untertaunus-Hünstetten e.V., Hünstetten. BRANCHE Windhunde. SKILLS Photoshop. <

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Windhund Arena

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Gestern war ich mit meinen beiden Rennschnecken beim Dackelrennen in Hünstetten.

Keep an eye out for it! Looking forward to how you paint these up, and your review of the videos as well! Video review is in work. Have looked all videos but this is so much stuff I have to see how I will write it, because two painters with really different techniques paint the miniatures.

Bei diesen Veranstaltungen gilt es oftmals mehrere Hundert Teilnehmer und mehrere Tausend Zuschauer zu beherbergen.

Da die meisten Teilnehmer heutzutage mit Wohnwagen bzw. Wohnmobilen zu den Wochenendveranstaltungen anreisen, müssen ausreichend Wohnwagenstellplätze mit entsprechender Infrastruktur Strom- bzw.

Wasseranschluss, Sanitäre Anlagen, Duschen, etc. Ebenso müssen ausreichend Parkplätze für die Tagesteilnehmer bzw. Zuschauer ausgewiesen werden.

Der rege Zulauf an Teilnehmern mit sehr hoher internationaler Beteiligung spricht für sich. Jedoch ist oftmals nicht nur die Teilnahme an einem Windhundrennen für die Besitzer der Hunde Grund, den Weg nach Gelsenkirchen anzutreten.

A generation, whose teeth are as swords, and their jaw teeth as knives. The fourth evil is insatiable cupidity, which leads to oppression and injurious treatment of the helpless and poor, which makes men as cruel and remorseless in destroying others and despoiling them of their substance, as the very steel which they use in their operations.

Similarly, the psalmist speaks of his enemies as men "whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword" Psalms ; comp. Isaiah ; Jeremiah To devour the poor from off the earth; i.

Amos , "Hear this, O ye that would swallow up the needy, and cause the poor of the land to fail" comp.

Psalms Having spoken of insatiate cupidity, the writer now introduces four things which are insatiable. The form of the apothegm is climacteric, mounting from two to three, and thence to four, like the famous passage in Amos , etc.

Proverbs , though there is no special stress there laid on the last member of the climax; Job ; Job ; Ecclesiastes The horseleach hath two daughters, crying, Give, give.

The word "crying" is not in the Hebrew, which says, "The alukah hath two daughters: Give! Jerome sanguisuga. The word is derived from a root which in Arabic means "to adhere.

It seems simple and quite satisfactory to accept the word thus, and to see in the voracity of the leech an example of the greed further developed in the following clauses; but commentators have not been contented with this explanation, and have offered various suggestions which are either unnecessary or inadmissible.

Thus the Talmud considers alukah to be an appellation of hell, and the two daughters to be the Power of the world, and Heresy. Some of the Fathers regard it as a symbol of the devil and his dominion; others, as a personification of cupidity with its two offshoots avarice and ambition.

Some moderns deem it to mean a vampire or blood thirsty demon, a ghoul, in accordance with Eastern myth. But, as we have said, such interpretations are unnecessary and unsupported by sufficient authority.

The allusion to the tastes of the leech is found elsewhere. Thus Theocritus, 'Idyll. Senati qui columen cluent. Ewald and others find traces of mutilation in this proverb, and endeavour to supply what is lost in various ways; but the text as it stands is intelligible, and needs no addition.

The rest of the verse is an application of the truth first stated. The type of cupidity there enunciated is instanced and exemplified in four special cases.

There are three things that are never satisfied. And then a corrective climax is addressed. Yea, four things say not, It is enough.

The four in the following verse are divided into two plus two. Septuagint, "The leech had three daughters dearly beloved, and these three did not satisfy her, and the fourth was not contented to say, Enough.

The four insatiable things are now named: first, the grave, sheol Proverbs , which can never be filled with its victims. Horace talks of a man as—.

The second thing is the barren womb; "the closing of the womb," as Genesis ; Isaiah The burning desire for children, characteristic of an Israelitish wife, is here denoted, like the passionate cry of Rachel to Jacob, "Give me children, or else I die" Genesis The barren woman, says Corn.

The more you heap on fire, the more material you supply, the fiercer it rages. Septuagint, "Hades, and the love of woman, and earth not satisfied with water, and water, and fire, will not say, It sufficeth.

This is an independent proverb, only connected with the preceding by being founded on an allusion to an animal. The eye that mocketh at his father.

The eye is named as the mind's instrument for expressing scorn and insubordination; it is the index to the inner feeling; and look may be as sinful as action.

And despiseth to obey his mother ; i. But etymology has led most modem commentators to give the sense of "obedience" see Genesis The ravens of the valley shall pick it out.

Such an undutiful son shall die a violent death; his corpse shall lie unburied, and the birds of prey shall feed upon him.

It is well known that ravens, vultures, and other birds that live on carrion first attack the eyes of their prey; and in our own islands we are told crows and birds of this sort will fix on the eyes of young or sickly animals.

Intestina canes, cetera membra lupi. His bowels dogs, his limbs the greedy wolves. Young eagles. The nesher must here mean one of the vulture tribe, as eagles do not feed on carrion but see Job Gregory 'Moral.

A proverb concerning four inscrutable things, connected with the last by mention of the eagle. There be three things which are too wonderful for me, yea, four which I know not.

The great point is the fourth, to which the three previous things lead up, all of them being alike in this, that they leave no trace.

The facts are marvellous; Agur feels like Job, "I have uttered that which I understood not, things too wonderful for me, which I knew not" Job The way of an eagle in the air.

You cannot by any outward sign know that an eagle has passed this or that way. The way of a serpent upon a rock.

The snake's mode of progression by the lever-like motion of its ribs might well awake surprise, but the point is still the tracklessness of its course.

On sand or soft ground its movements might be traced by the impression made. The way of a ship in the midst heart of the sea; i.

You can trace a ship's course while she is near land or within sight, but when she reaches the open sea, you can follow her furrow no longer.

But this is feeble, and almah is without doubt rightly rendered "maid," "virgin. This is exemplified and confirmed in the following verse.

It is not sufficient to refer the saying to the insidious arts of the seducer, by which he saps the principles and inflames the passions of his victim.

The sin of unchastity is signified, which demands secrecy and affords no token of its commission. Two of the above parallels, says Cheyne, are given in a quatrain of a Vedic hymn to Varuna—.

The soaring eagle's flight he knows. Some of the Fathers and earlier commentators, and among moderns, Bishop Wordsworth, have not been content with the literal sense of this gnonic, but have found in it, as in the others, deep spiritual mysteries.

Christ is the great Eagle Revelation , who ascended beyond human ken; the serpent is the devil, who works his wily way in secret, and who tried to pass into the mind of Christ, who is the Rock; the ship is the Church, which preserves its course amid the waves of this troublesome world, though we cannot mark its strength or whither it is guided; and the fourth mystery is the incarnation of Jesus Christ our Lord, when "the virgin almah conceived and bare a son" Isaiah , when "a woman encompassed a man geber " Jeremiah We can see the greater or less appropriateness of such accommodation, but the proverb must have been received by contemporaries only in its literal sense, whatever were the inner mysteries which the Holy Spirit wished to communicate thereby.

This verse is a kind of gloss or illustration of the last thought of the preceding verse, and seems not to have formed an original part of the numerical proverb.

It might well be placed in a parenthesis. Many commentators consider it to be an interpolation. Such is the way of an adulterous woman.

What Agur had said of a man above, he now applies to the practised adulteress, whose sin cannot be traced.

She eateth. This is a euphemism for the sin which she commits, "Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant" Proverbs ; comp.

And wipeth her mouth, as if to leave no trace of her illicit repast. And saith, I have done no wickedness. As she has sinned in secret, and there is no outward proof of her guilt, she boldly denies it.

Septuagint, "Such is the way of an adulterous woman, who, when she has committed the act, having washed herself, says she has done nothing amiss. Then follows a proverb concerning four things which are intolerable, examples of incongruous associations or positions—two in the case of men, two in the case of women.

For three things the earth is disquieted ; better, under three things the earth doth tremble , as if oppressed by an overwhelming borden.

The form of expression does not allow us to think of an earthquake. Amos These four evils destroy the comfort of social life, uproot the bonds of society, and endanger the safety of a nation.

For a servant when he reigneth ; or, under a slave when he becometh king. This startling vicissitude was not uncommon in Eastern states; and even if the slave was not preferred to regal power, he was often advanced by unwise favouritism to high position, for which he was wholly unfitted, and which he used only to aggrandize himself at the expense and to the injury of others, This incongruity has been already noticed at Proverbs where see note.

And a fool when he is filled with meat. When such a one rises to high position, or has power over others, he becomes arrogant, selfish, unbearable comp.

Proverbs ; Proverbs ; Proverbs For an odious woman when she is married; or, under an unloved woman when she is married. The sentence does not refer to an unbeloved wife, a Leah, becoming the favourite, a Rachel; the expression, "when she is married," can hardly have this sense; but the gnome speaks of a woman who has passed much of her life without love, having nothing about her attractive either in looks, attainments, or manner, and is consequently soured and ill-tempered.

If such a one does at last win a husband, she uses her new position to vex those who formerly depreciated her, and to make them as miserable as she cam And a handmaid that is heir to her mistress.

The maidservant that obtains her mistress's property, either by supplanting her or by right of inheritance, is supposed to make a bad use of it, to become conceited, arrogant, and odious to all around her.

There be four things which are little upon the earth , in contrast with the intolerable pretensions of the last group.

The Vulgate has minima ; but the original is not superlative, which would not be true of some of the creatures named.

The Septuagint and Vulgate translate in the comparatives. The ants are a people not strong. The ant is proposed as an example to the sluggard Proverbs , etc.

He calls the ants a people, am , because they live in a community, and have authorities which they obey, and their actions are regulated by certain definite laws.

So Joel Joel calls the locusts a nation, and Homer 'Iliad,' 2. In countries where ants hybernate the object of this commended foresight is mistaken; but the statement, as that in Proverbs , is in accordance with the popular belief of the day, and serves well to point the moral intended.

We know certainly that in Europe these insects fill their nests with heterogeneous articles—grain, seeds, husks, etc; not as stores to be consumed in the winter, but for warmth and comfort's sake.

Scripture is not intended to teach science; it speaks of such matters phenomenally, with no attempt at a precision which would not have been understood or appreciated by contemporaries.

But in the present case more careful observation has confirmed the correctness of the asset. In countries where, ants do not hybernate, they do make granaries for themselves in the summer, and use these supplies as food in the winter months see note on Proverbs The conies are but a feeble folk.

The term "coney" cuniculus is applied to the rabbit, but this is not the animal here intended; and indeed rabbits are not found in Palestine.

The word shaphan designates the Hyrax Syriacus , called by some the rock badger. The coney, says Dr. Geikie 'Holy Land and Bible,' 2.

It is of the size of the rabbit, but belongs to a very different order of animals, being placed by naturalists between the hippopotamus and rhinoceros.

Its soft fur is brownish-grey over the back, with long black hairs rising through this lighter coat, and is almost white on the stomach; the tail is very short.

The Jews, who were not scientific, deceived by the motion of its jaws in eating, which is exactly like that of ruminant animals, fancied it chewed the cud, though it did not divide the hoof, and so they put its flesh amidst that which was forbidden.

It lives in companies, and chooses a ready-made cleft in the rocks for its home, so that, though the conies are but a 'feeble folk,' their refuge in the rocks gives them a security beyond that of stronger creatures.

They are, moreover, 'exceeding wise,' so that it is very hard to capture one. Indeed, they are said, on high authority, to have sentries regularly placed on the look out while the rest are feeding; a squeak from the watchman sufficing to send the flock scudding to their holes like rabbits.

The coney is found in many parts of Palestine, from Lebanon to the Dead Sea. This fact is noticed in Psalms This notion of the animal as a kind of little pig is not more accurate than that of St.

Jerome, who renders the term by lepusculus. The locusts have no king Proverbs , yet they show discipline, guidance, and order.

They go forth all of them by bands; so that Joel Joel , Joel speaks of them as a well-ordered army, as it were men of war, marching every one on his ways, not entangling their ranks, walking every one in his path.

Septuagint, "The locusts are without a king, yet march at one command in good order. The spider taketh hold with her hands.

Semamith or shemamith is some sort of lizard, probably the gecko. The Authorized Version alludes either to its fanlike foot, which enables it to run up walls and to cling to ceilings, or to its power of exuding from its feet a certain poisonous humour by which it catches flies and other insects.

But the above translation, as well as that of the Septuagint and the Vulgate manibus nititur , is incorrect, The first line, in accordance with the method pursued in the three cases previously, ought to give some expression denoting weakness or littleness, whereas by the above rendering it is rather strength and activity that are signified.

The translation therefore should run, as in the Revised Version margin, "The lizard thou canst seize with thy hand," and yet it is in king's palaces.

Small as it is, and easy to catch and crush, it is agile and clever enough to make its way into the very palace of the king, and to dwell there.

Gregory takes the lizard as the type of the simple, earnest man, who often succeeds better than the clever. Whereas, then, 'the lizard climbeth with his hands,' he 'is in kings' palaces;' in that the plain man, by earnestness of right practice, reaches that point whereunto the man of ability never mounts" 'Moral.

The ancient expositors see in these verses a presentation of the Church of God, weak on its human side and despised by men, yet exceeding wise 1 Corinthians —like the ant, laying up treasure in heaven, providing for death and eternity; like the coney, making the Rock her refuge; like the locusts, moving forward a mighty army in battle array; like the lizard, active in movement, holding the truth tenaciously, and dwelling in the palace of the great King.

There be three things which go well rob ; are of stately and majestic carriage. Comely in going; "stately in going.

A lion which is strongest among beasts. The word here used for "lion," laish , occurs elsewhere only in Job and Isaiah Turneth not away for any; Septuagint, "turneth not away, nor feareth any beast.

In post-biblical Hebrew zarzir is found as the name of some pugnacious bird, and the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Syriac call it here the cock.

So also Aquila and Theodotion. But if the word is onomatopoetic, it would seem to apply with more propriety to one of the raven tribe; and then what is to be made of the allusion to the loins?

And how comes it that amid the quadrupeds in the gnome a bird should suddenly be introduced, as one stately in going?

It seems certain that some quadruped is here meant, but what? What animal has as characteristic tight-girded loins or slender or active loins?

There are, indeed, many that might be so designated, but none that, as far as we know, appropriated this unique appellation. Hence various opinions are held by commentators concerning the identification.

The zebra, say some, with its stripes, which may be thus denoted; the war horse, say others, comparing Job , Job , and considering the trappings with which, as we see in ancient sculptures, he was adorned; others, again, fix upon the leopard as the beast intended.

But that of the Authorized Version seems, on the whole, to be the most likely rendering, the slender, agile make of the greyhound having given cause for the appropriation of the term used in the text.

Delitzsch compares the German word windspiel , which designates the greyhound without the necessity of using the full term, wiadspielhund.

The only points which may be considered adverse to this view are these two, viz. Agur may be referring to what he has seen elsewhere, but what was well known to these for whom he wrote.

Gesenius suggests , "a warrior girt in the loins," which is adopted by Wordsworth, and gives a suitable idea. This would correspond with the king in the last line; but the interpretation is quite arbitrary, and supported by no ancient authority, resting on the fact that girding the loins is always spoken of human beings.

The cock strutting among his hens is, as we have hinted, the idea which approves itself to many ancient translators. We are not disposed to adept this identification, more especially as common poultry were unknown in Palestine till long after Solomon's time.

Certainly what we call cocks and hens, or barn door fowls, are never mentioned in the Old Testament. The latest editors decide for the war horse; but the conflicting claims cannot be reconciled, and the matter must be left undetermined.

An he goat also. This is a very natural comparison, as the stately manner in which the he goat tay-ish , "the butter" heads the flock has been always observed.

We see them everywhere on the mountains, in smaller or larger numbers; at times also along with sheep, as one flock, in which ease it is usually a he goat that is the special leader of the whole, walking before it as gravely as a sexton before the white flock of a church choir" Geikie, 'Holy Land,' A king, against whom there is no rising up; Vulgate, nec est rex qui resistat ei , which ought to mean "and a king whom nothing resists," but can scarcely be compelled to produce this meaning without violence.

To some it has seemed that a proper name was intended, and they have invented a King Alkum or Alkimos, whom they suppose to have been celebrated in or after Solomon's time.

Many modern commentators take the word to be an Arabic expression, consisting of al , the definite article, and kum , "people," and consider the meaning to be "a king with whom is the people," i.

This is certainly a stately sight, and may well stand parallel to the hero lion among beasts, and the bold he goat at the head of the flock. Other Arabic expressions may probably be found elsewhere in this chapter; e.

Job , Job , Job , aluka , etc. Agur's last proverb, exhorting to discreet demeanour. If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself Numbers If thou hast had the folly to be arrogant, proud, and overbearing in conduct.

Or if thou hast thought evil, lay thine hand upon thy mouth. The verb zamam , though possibly used in a bad sense, "to devise evil," is more suitably rendered "to meditate," "purpose;" so here it is the thought of lifting up one's self that is censured, the act and the thought being contrasted.

Hast thou acted arrogantly, or even only meditated doing so, restrain yourself, keep silence Job ; Job Jerome gives a different rendering, enforcing another lesson, "There is one who shows himself a fool after he is raised to high position; if he had had understanding, he would have laid his hand on his mouth.

But he will appear a fool when lifted up on high, because he will fail in his very loftiness through the coming of the true Judge.

But if he had understood this, he would have laid his hand on his mouth; that is, if he had foreseen his punishment, when he began to be proud, having been once fashioned aright, he would not have been raised up to the boastfulness of such great pride" Oxford transl.

Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter. The same word, mits , is used for "churning," "wringing," and "forcing;" it means "pressure" in all the cases, though with a different application.

At the present day milk is churned in the East by enclosing it in a leathern bottle, which is then suspended in the air and jerked to and fro till the butter is produced.

This process could scarcely be called "pressure," though, possibly, the squeezing of the udder is meant, as the Septuagint and Vulgate take it.

But most probably the reference is to cheese, the term used, chemah , being applied indifferently to curdled milk and cheese.

To produce this substance, the curdled milk is put into little baskets of rush or palm leaves, tied closely, and then pressed under heavy stones.

What the proverb says is that, as the pressure applied to milk produces cheese, and as pressure applied to the nose brings blood, so the pressure of wrath bringeth forth strife; the irritation and provocation of anger occasion quarrels and contentions.

They say in Malabar, remarks Lane, "Anger is a stone cast into a wasp's nest. Some of the Fathers, commenting on the Vulgate rendering Qui fortiter premit ubera ad eliciendum lac, exprimit butyrum; et qui vehementer emungit, elicit sanguinem , apply the passage to the handling of the Word of God.

Thus St Gregory 'Moral. For we 'press the udder strongly' when we weigh with minute understanding the word of sacred revelation, by which way of pressing whilst we seek milk, we find butter, because, whilst we seek to be fed with but a little insight, we are anointed with the abundance of interior richness.

Which, nevertheless, we ought neither to do too much, nor at all times, lest, while milk is sought for from the udder, there should follow blood. For very often, persons, whilst they sift the words of sacred revelation more than they ought, fall into a carnal apprehension.

For 'he draws forth blood who wringeth violently. The weary search for God. The man's saying, I have wearied myself about God, wearied myself about God—then did I withdraw!

Agur appears to have lived far away from the borders of the favoured land of Israel. If he was a Jew, he was one in exile, separated from the home of his people.

If he was an Ishmaelite, he was even outside the covenant of Israel, and in that case we have the striking picture of an Arab of antiquity anticipating Mahomet in breaking from the idolatry of his fathers.

Like Balsam, like Job, this resident in a heathen land looks up to the true God. Paul spoke to the Athenians of those who could "seek God, if haply they might feel after him, and find him" Acts ; and St.

Peter could acknowledge God's acceptance of all who look to him truly, no matter what race they might belong to Acts The natural search of the soul for God springs from certain great fundamental facts, viz.

God is the Father of all men. März benennen wir hiermit aufgrund von Veränderungen bei den vier Hauptaktionären mit den höchsten Stimmrechtsanteilen.

Göteborg, Dienstag, September SKF investiert rund Mio. Rund Mio. SEK steckt der Konzern. Programm zur Zukunftssicherung des Standortes verabschiedet, weitere Investitionen freigegeben.

Göteborg, Montag, Der Vertrag soll dem mexikanischen Stahlproduzenten helfen, in seinem Walzwerk in Celaya die.

SKF und die niederländische University of Twente bündeln ihre Forschungskompetenzen, um Fortschritte in einem Bereich voranzutreiben, der für die Leistung rotierender Maschinen entscheidend ist: Fettschmierung.

Bewerbungsfrist für läuft noch bis 4. Direkter Kontakt mit Ausbildern,. Schweinfurt, August die Funktion Manager Global Operations innerhalb.

This performance allowed us. SKF hat ihr aus etwa Investors, analysts and media are invited to join a conference call, which will be held.

Responsibility for Automotive sales and the Aerospace. With its new UC series of ball bearing units, SKF has increased protection against contamination in heavy-duty applications.

Gothenburg, 17 June SKF is making further investments in strengthening its manufacturing footprint in China for ball bearings.

The latest version of Enlight ProCollect helps organisations improve lubrication management by planning detailed manual lubrication routines for factory equipment.

A new mobile tool - SKF Bearing Assist app, simplifies the process of mounting and installing bearings and can be used by everyone in a maintenance organisation.

The bond was issued in two tranches with SEK 2, million at a floating. Gothenburg, Sweden, May 29th, Guillermo E. Wheelbase was set at Overall length was to fall around inches with a height of 51 inches.

With these reference points settled Engineering and Styling took up their tasks. By the end of January the studio presented designs which promised success and the making of 1 :5 models could begin.

A test version of the high-priority transaxle was designed to be quickly built and mounted in an outside model while a test version of the new suspension was also built up to be checked out as quickly as possible in a mule.

Such basic experiments meant that the test department was included from the very beginning. On 14 February various 1 :5 models from the studio went into a wind tunnel for the first time and results were encouraging.

While further details were taking shape on the drawing boards and basic experiments were underway, a buck or seating module was completed by 9 June, This made it obvious that while entrance and seating would have to be improved, they were on the right basic path.

This first, creative phase was nearing its end,. Three main criteria were decisive when the styling studio began its search for a new shape.

One objective was a good coefficient of air resistance with a small frontal area. Furthermore, the exterior was to be "timeless" with an eye to a long production run.

It shouldn't be influenced by short-term fashion trends. And finally - following the pattern of its forebears - an unmistakable Porsche silhouette was to be created.

Thus, this project assignment for Chief of Styling Anatole Lapine and his aide Wolfgang Mobius corresponded in all its basic parameters to requirements which had also been decisive for creators of the and The search for favorable aerodynamics, one of the prerequisites for good performance with low consumption, was basically harder than it had been with a rear-engine arrangement.

Front engines lead to a higher nose, not to mention that necessary air opening in the nose for a radiator, unappealing to all aerodynamicists. However Engineering had obliged the stylists with a low engine outline and the basic requirement for adequate coo!

Calculations showed they could work with a relatively small opening. Still, the exceptionally low engine height of only A similar development had already been faced in motor racing at the beginning of the seventies when overall vehicle width increased rapidly, due chiefly.

This considerable overall breadth, finally limited to The design favored, and finally chosen, achieved a Cx value of 0. This was very good, considering their far more difficult task, compared to the first which had a Cx of 0.

The design also met all requirements for individuality and timelessness. By doing away with such modish elements as a wedge shape or pronounced belt line with sharp edges they were led, so to speak, to those round, soft shapes which had also been typical of the predecessors.

Width was managed very well. The front in particular presented a rather slender appearance through clever detailing, The tail could not quite deny its bulk but this gave an effect of highly sporting power.

Thus the studio had solved its primary task: giving this new front-engine car an exterior form which fully expressed the special Porsche character.

From the earliest stage their plans had included integrated bumpers and pop-up headlights. More or less integral bumpers had already been used on the while bumpers were faired directly into the body.

For reasons of form almost seamless bumper integration was desired this time. It was well liked at first although the idea didn't Pop-up main lights already used in another form on the were one means for keeping front fender height down and for reducing frontal area during normal daytime driving.

A second major task of the studio was design of an interior cell and here a new element had to be considered: the tunnel for that central tube.

Porsche had always emphasized relatively free access between driver and passenger seats but the tube cut through such thoughts.

The studio turned this disadvantage, long known all too well to other builders, into a virtue by embedding their front seats deep between tunnel and door cutouts, A particularly functional arrangement of dash and console com-.

Free passage between driver and passenger, so favored for friendly communication, was not mourned too long although Dr.

Fuhrmann couldn't help but make a comment, which soon went the rounds in Weissach, on first viewing the seating buck: "You have certainly designed me a fine Jesuit car there.

This, together with the central warning panel to indicate operational failures, comprises a successful attempt to present the driver with all necessary information in such a clear manner that there can be no chance for misinterpretation.

When Porsche decided on a transaxle construction, meaning an engine in the nose with gearbox in back, advantages and disadvantages were carefully balanced.

Such a design was no technical novelty. This building style - although in a different arrangement - had existed previously in race and sport cars.

Automobiles like the well-known, prewar Lancia Aprilia had their gearboxes in back. However strong reasons for the temporary abeyance of this design were the vibration and noise such a drive shaft, running as a "fast shaft" at engine revs, could cause.

Porsche arrived at the conclusion that vibration and noise problems could be solved by modern knowledge and methods so there should be no reason for foregoing the advantages of a transaxle - optimum weight distribution, relatively good loading of the driving wheels and excellent prerequisites for meeting all crash standards through improved safety cells front and rear - merely because previous versions had problems.

Nevertheless, they had been forewarned and intensive basic preliminary experiments were planned to familiarize all concerned with the special features of this principle, eliminating flaws from the first.

The decision to undertake extensive development work was soon proved correct. As early as March of news penetrated to Stuttgart which indicated that testing of the then-new Alfa Romeo type Alfetta , also planned with gearbox in the rear, had thrown up difficulties in noise suppression.

The Volkswagen factory which had been experimenting for some time with "fast shafts" also warned of uncontrollable vibrations of 1st, 2nd and 3rd magnitude.

One such test chassis, the first to try any component, was a Mercedes SL, dubbed V1 internally. This vehicle was acquired because it matched nicely and promised rational test operations, not to mention the fact that it carried a V8 engine.

Design of the transaxle specified a gearbox ahead of its rear axle since such an arrangement promised best use of tail space. It was important that results hew as close to practice as possible so such a gearbox layout would be required on test.

At that time the gearbox was still in its design stage of course, but the competition department once more came to the rescue. Their model gearbox, originally developed for the Conversion of V1 was completed on 15 May.

The car now had a racing gearbox just ahead of its rear axle, in unit with the engine via a central tube.

The clutch was in back, the "fast shaft" ran in a simple bearing in the middle of its central tube, Driving tests had to be broken off immediately, however, because the provisional clutch slid forward insufficient pressure on its withdrawal mechanism] and ceased to function.

Once this was corrected, again provisionally, further driving tests could begin. The test log notes: "subjectively, no drive line vibration can be felt in the passenger compartment and loud interior noise is due solely to insufficient insulation of the gear lever bracket.

Since the clutch slipped forward again after a short time and the arrangement was provisional in any case, this original driving test was interrupted and the transaxle rebuilt.

It was now mated to a standard Mercedes clutch and original flywheel, both up front with the engine. On 30 May experiments were resumed and first impressions were again very positive.

Meanwhile the gear lever bracket had been covered with a layer of noise dampening material and previous complaints of interior noise largely disappeared.

Detailed bench and mobile test bed experiments could begin. As generally expected these proved less positive. Cited basically were a very strong resonance from the unit at rpm, along with high vibration from the gear lever bracket and gearbox nose plus oscillations during load changes and noise from the clutch housing area.

In fact, a great deal of work remained. While major research into the vibration patterns of a transaxle was launched, initial test bench endurance runs on the component could begin on 12 July, designed to pinpoint any potential failures.

Meanwhile V 1 was running on a chassis dynamometer in the climatic wind tunnel to simulate road conditions. It was run hard; starting and shifting up through the gears to top under full throttle, then ten seconds each at , and 5 rpm, shifting back to first, and again full throttle up through the gears.

This exposed the drive line to a multiple factor of normal use. A serious failure occurred after miles. The "fast shaft" had taken on a sine curve shape, with damage to the central tube and shaft bearing.

Bearing noise became audible again at miles and further disassembly was necessary, it was evident that the center shaft bearing had been damaged this version used three bearings, later they changed to two.

The test was concluded after miles on the brake but provided vital knowledge about "fast shafts" and their bearings.

Diameter of the shaft was then increased from 0. This major study of vibration patterns in the transaxle was It concluded on 6 October when a 65 page report was issued.

This indicated that the planned component layout of "fast shaft" and central tube could indeed be utilized without prejudice to comfort and that vibration behavior could be mastered.

Thanks to various vibration measurements, optimal bearing locations could be determined which reduced vibrations considerably. A properly sited bearing also reduced shaft loads Furthermore, they could prove that further stiffening of the system had a favorable influence on the swing pattern as did a change of mass concentrations.

It was suggested for the first time that other components be attached to the drive line to control its vibration pattern.

Finally, these experiments brought valuable data on important detail matters such as placement of the gear lever bracket and shift knob shape.

The application of this study, along with future research, brought astounding results. The unpleasant vibration peak at rpm was completely eliminated.

A further step, taken at the beginning of and based on this major study, was use of the battery as a vibration damper. It was placed at the end of the gearbox.

This move naturally found favor with the chassis people since they wanted to locate the battery in back anyway for better weight distribution.

One prerequisite was a stiff battery carrier but vibration loads on the battery remained well below border values listed by the makers, and even below those for batteries mounted to the bodywork in the usual manner.

Preliminary tests could be successfully concluded on 26 June , Noise development over a wide range lay below the original production condition of V1 and vibrations were no longer a basic problem for either driving comfort or material wear.

Thus a path was cleared for engineering and construction. Initial bench tests were made in August and the new drive line was then installed in the V3 test bed, an Audi Coupe which received the platform with considerably wider fenders as only exterior sign.

This conversion was finished on 19 September and for the first time a complete drive line with engine, "fast shaft," center tube and. First tests were very satisfactory even though the vibration level-as expected - was again high.

The final component layout had to be optimized as well and this work launched an extensive second phase, on the test bench, in mobile test beds and with the first prototype.

Although a great deal of detail work would still be necessary, the transaxle passed its first major road test in Algeria with bravura that November,.

A mathematically determined capacity of just under five liters was the median value but all details were arranged to provide considerable leeway for adjusting the capacity up- or downwards.

Original thought tended more towards an increase to roughly 5. Since minimum weight was decisive, along with low construction height, a light metal unit was the only one considered.

The overall proportion of light alloy was to be large, based in part on rich experience with racing and the Since the friction relationship of alloy on alloy is poor, all solutions in this general field use a heavy metal: light alloy pistons run in a steel or cast iron liner set into the alloy block.

And since there is nothing new under the sun, Mahle and Porsche had already collaborated on a development in ! At that time a cc, four-cylinder Porsche engine was built without liners.

Instead the running surfaces were etched and fitted with chrome-plated pistons. This chrome layer prevented direct contact of alloy with alloy.

This was a reverse of principle: the pistons were "heavy" rather than the cylinder surfaces. This engine was clearly too far ahead of its time.

It ran for close to 12, miles but then produced problems: the chrome layer on the pistons scaled off. Since various problems went unsolved at that time the project wasn't.

The hour of a "reverse principle" which could do without steel or cast iron cylinder liners had not yet struck.

These tests did provide an interesting memory, however. In those days Porsche only had two test cars from the line, called "Windhund" and "Ferdinand" cars soon surrounded by legend.

But these two s were booked day and night for tests so they had preempted a VW beetle for further work, a car which entered Porsche history as "Adrian.

This consisted of an engine block in extra-eutectic aluminum-silicon alloy. After honing such cylinder walls are etched, allowing primary silicon crystals to stand free of their aluminum matrix to give a long-wearing surface.

Pistons, now running directly in the light alloy block, carry an iron or chrome layer, Eliminating the liners not only saves weight but also offers the advantages of simplified machining, Porsche had looked into the Reynolds reverse principle as early as on two different levels.

On one hand they carried out tests with an air-cooled engine and alongside these took up experiments with the water-cooled engine from the project.

Results were impressive - the reverse principle was put into production on the air-cooled engine in the fall of but its chief application was to come with the This made it possible to design the upper housing in one piece, without liners, thus making it especially stiff despite a low weight.

A low-pressure casting procedure provided the necessary density. The housing was designed with a horizontal split at the level of the main bearings, allowing the lower portion of the case to be pressure-cast in a normal aluminum alloy rather than in the high-silicon version.

This might seem somewhat daring since different materials for upper and lower housings were once considered a problem area, particularly when it came to machining bearing webs and mounting the oil pump.

The decision taken by Porsche engineers to provide a simple oil groove in the separation face between the two halves of the housing rather than the customary drilled oil passages seemed even more daring.

This design detail promised control over neatness and a better flow pattern since passages could be provided with gentle radii in place of the usual sharp edges.

There was a considerable saving in machining too. But all this seemed advanced enough that test results were awaited with great interest In fact, this simultaneous machining of different materials never presented any serious problems once the tooling was optimized and an absolute seal at the interface was achieved by using bypasses and a modern silk-screen technique for the joint seal.

The five-bearing crankshaft was made especially rigid to achieve desired running silence while bearings were given generous dimensions with diameters of 2.

Non-alloy CK 45 steel was the chosen material with bearing faces of the 55 pound crankshaft tempered. Rotating and oscillating masses were fully balanced.

In the interests of good mass balance and to hold weight tolerances of the connecting rods within the tightest possible limits, rod design was given considerable attention.

They decided to develop a sinter-forged rod Test results were indeed outstanding. Alternating tension and compression tests produced clearly better results for the sintered parts than those for steel rods forged in a similar shape.

In designing the cylinder head engineers battled, as they had with so many of the car's components, with the most contrary demands, all of which had to be fitted into one concept: combustion with minimal pollution and low consumption, high performance efficiency, operation on normal fuel, plus low mechanical and thermic loads.

In addition they had to consider the guidelines for exterior engine dimensions. Aluminum heads were fitted with one overhead camshaft per bank and two overhead valves per cylinder, arranged in a row, A pent-roof combustion chamber was chosen with a squish zone opposite the spark plug which took up a good fifth of the piston area.

This design saved space and aided in reducing the height of the powerplant. The fact that it didn't follow classic higher-performance engine practices of hemispherical combustion chamber and valves in a vee demonstrated again the altered standards of current engine design.

In the shadow of ever-sharper emissions norms, an engine must be laid out to offer optimum efficiency in the median performance range with limited revolutions.

The inclination to a classic layout looses priority with any reduction in liter-output which must be compensated by increased capacity. Extended service intervals and modest maintenance demands were key factors in the project book - they were attributes which stood alongside the long-term guarantee as key features of Porsche's philosophy for development, production and sales.

Hydraulic adjustment of valve play seemed a reasonable way to fulfill such requirements in the valve train realm. It was once common to exclusive sedans such as Packard and meanwhile had become widespread on American cars.

For the project where a hard-to-reach engine had to. Thus the necessary experience was ready to hand although the actual design departed from usual paths by fitting the hydraulics to the cup tappets which were moving elements, An eleven pound spring in the center of the cup tappet was designed to balance out valve play increase or decrease, up to a working stroke of 0.

This worked perfectly in pretesting but a certain skepticism remained regarding possible peak revs since hydraulic systems had not proved too durable at such rpm figures.

Of course the wasn't designed for high rpm values as such since they were contrary to the basic concept which aimed at fulfillment of the stiffest emissions and noise regulations.

But since they desired a safety factor in this area as well, an interesting experiment was launched with the aid of the race department. The projected hydraulic system was fitted to a four-cam version of the six-cylinder race engine and then entered in two events which settled the question once and for all.

On the brake this engine with hydraulic valve play adjustment even reached 8 rpm without the slightest trouble and all doubts were banished.

Since ease of maintenance was another important requirement, cylinder head bolts were developed which would not require re-tightening after the first installation.

A well-developed bolt pattern, deep-seated studs and the favorable qualities of tapered upper cylinder bores allowed this achievement without secondary measures.

The bolts are first tightened to The engine need not be run between the two procedures. In that interval the torque figure decreases by roughly 7 Ib.

Later torque checks are unnecessary. This engine design also demanded good oil circulation since high lateral and longitudinal acceleration values were expected on the one hand while the hydraulic valve.

This led to large intake cross sections with the oil intake pipe mouth shielded upwards to avoid funnel formation, as well as an efficient sickel pump with sintered steel wheels plus altered balance and rerouting measures and a specially designed oil sump.

The use of a single cog belt to drive the camshafts, oil and water pumps offered intriguing possibilities.

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